Anàlisi de la gestió d'incendis forestals en el marc del mecanisme europeu de protecció civil: Estudi tècnic
Galán Santano, Moisès
Climate change is increasing the complexity of forest fires management around the world; Chile 2017, Portugal 2017, Greece 2018 and also the United States 2020 are clear examples. Europe is no exception; the studies incorporated in this project have a negative impact, inset of, on the 5 bioclimatic areas identified in the European Union (EU). Increases in average temperature, intense heat waves, long episodes of low relative humidity, and an increase in adverse phenomena will mean a change to worse conditions. The first concern of this potential situation is related to security, the European Union with 440 million people has 174 million hectares of forest. Serious episodes of Great Forest Fires (GIF) experienced in the Mediterranean region have impacted over areas where anthropization is intense, and only with the example of the Pedrógrão Grande's fire with 62 deaths (Portugal, 2017) is reflected the potential of forest fires. In 2001, the European Commission created the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (UCPM) to improve the EU's response to natural and man-made disasters such as forest fires, floods, marine pollution, earthquakes, hurricanes and industrial accidents, inside and outside the European Union. This instrument is governed by decision no. 1313/2013/EU of the European Parliament and the Council. The objectives in this Final Degree Project (TFG) include a study aimed at analyzing the forest fire extinguishing systems of different EU countries. Eight countries with expert knowledge in the field have participated, and this work exposes the detected shortcomings of a global system in episodes of high complexity. The data from the last episode of Australia (2019-2020) are a good mirror to understand the magnitude of an emergency that in the right conditions can cross borders easily. Exactly, the study carried outputs clearly aspects of important improvement that need to be addressed; the LACES protocol, combined operations or the use of technical fire, must be priority challenges. But this TFG goes further, in addition to identifying problems; it seeks to provide solutions in a UCPM-led framework. Other global emergencies such as earthquakes allowed reference experts to create a discipline that homogenized and normalized knowledge. Based on the expertise, the International Search and Rescue Advisory Group (INSARAG) were created (also exposed in this work). This benchmark is for the world of forest fires at the European level a mirror while working on the line of forest operational capabilities within the framework of the UCPM. This project is based on proposing 5 improvement actions so that the UCPM can make a qualitative leap. An economic assessment of these measures in accordance with the established plan is also included. The total budget of this proposal, 15 million euros, at European level shouldn't mean any difficulty, at the same time implying the commitment at the level of member states to create training structures to implement it. Countries will be impregnated with knowledge from the experiences shared and led always from the UCPM. This project is aimed to add, contribute and promote improvements so that the UCPM may lead knowledge transfer. It is hoped that this instrument can help better prepare the EU for a gradual increase in the risk of forest fires, their intensity and the high complexity they will entail over the coming years.