Publicacions de projectes finançats per la Unió Europea

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Publicacions resultants de les investigacions finançades pel 7è Programa Marc, pel Programa H2020 i l’European Research Council de la Unió Europea, recollides en el Projecte OpenAIRE (Open Access Infraestructure for Research in Europe) que promou l’accés obert a Europa.

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Now showing 1 - 5 of 861
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    Open Access
    Positive feedbacks and alternative stable states in forest leaf types
    (Nature Research, 2024) Zou, Yibiao; Zohner, Constantin M.; Averill, Colin; Ma, Haozhi; Merder, Julian; Berdugo, Miguel; Bialic-Murphy, Lalasia; Mo, Lidong; Brun, Philipp; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Liang, Jingjing; Miguel Magaña, Sergio de; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan; Reich, Peter B.; Niinements, Ulo
    The emergence of alternative stable states in forest systems has significant implications for the functioning and structure of the terrestrial biosphere, yet empirical evidence remains scarce. Here, we combine global forest biodiversity observations and simulations to test for alternative stable states in the presence of evergreen and deciduous forest types. We reveal a bimodal distribution of forest leaf types across temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere that cannot be explained by the environment alone, suggesting signatures of alternative forest states. Moreover, we empirically demonstrate the existence of positive feedbacks in tree growth, recruitment and mortality, with trees having 4–43% higher growth rates, 14–17% higher survival rates and 4–7 times higher recruitment rates when they are surrounded by trees of their own leaf type. Simulations show that the observed positive feedbacks are necessary and sufficient to generate alternative forest states, which also lead to dependency on history (hysteresis) during ecosystem transition from evergreen to deciduous forests and vice versa. We identify hotspots of bistable forest types in evergreen-deciduous ecotones, which are likely driven by soil-related positive feedbacks. These findings are integral to predicting the distribution of forest biomes, and aid to our understanding of biodiversity, carbon turnover, and terrestrial climate feedbacks.
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    Open Access
    A Simple Cervicovaginal Epigenetic Test for Screening and Rapid Triage of Women With Suspected Endometrial Cancer: Validation in Several Cohort and Case/Control Sets
    (American Society of Clinical Oncology, 2022) Herzog, Chiara; Marín, Fátima; Jones, Allison; Evans, Iona; Reisel, Daniel; Redl, Elisa; Schreiberhuber, Lena; Paytubi, Sonia; Pelegrina , Beatriz; Carmona, Álvaro; Peremiquel-Trillas, Paula; Frias-Gomez, Jon; Pineda, Marta; Brunet, Joan; Ponce, Jordi; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; de Sanjosé , Silvia; Alemany , Laia; Olaitan , Adeola; Wong, Michael; Jurkovic, Davor; Crosbie , Emma J.; Rosenthal , Adam N.; Bjørge, Line; Zikan, Michal; Dostalek, Lukas; Cibula, David; Sundström, Karin; Dillner , Joakim; Costas, Laura; Widschwendter , Martin
    Purpose: Endometrial cancer (EC) incidence has been rising over the past 10 years. Delays in diagnosis reduce survival and necessitate more aggressive treatment. We aimed to develop and validate a simple, noninvasive, and reliable triage test for EC to reduce the number of invasive diagnostic procedures and improve patient survival. Methods: We developed a test to screen and triage women with suspected EC using 726 cervical smear samples from women with and without EC, and validated the test in 562 cervicovaginal samples using three different collection methods (cervical smear: n = 248; vaginal swab: n = 63; and self-collection: n = 251) and four different settings (case/control: n = 388; cohort of women presenting with postmenopausal bleeding: n = 63; a cohort of high-risk women with Lynch syndrome: n = 25; and a nested case/control setting from a screening cohort and samples taken up to 3 years before EC diagnosis: n = 86). Results: We describe the Women's cancer risk IDentification - quantitative polymerase chain reaction test for Endometrial Cancer (WID-qEC), a three-marker test that evaluates DNA methylation in gene regions of GYPC and ZSCAN12. In cervical, self-collected, and vaginal swab samples derived from symptomatic patients, it detected EC with sensitivities of 97.2% (95% CI, 90.2 to 99.7), 90.1% (83.6 to 94.6), and 100% (63.1 to 100), respectively, and specificities of 75.8% (63.6 to 85.5), 86.7% (79.3 to 92.2), and 89.1% (77.8 to 95.9), respectively. The WID-qEC identified 90.9% (95% CI, 70.8 to 98.9) of EC cases in samples predating diagnosis up to 1 year. Test performance was similar across menopausal status, age, stage, grade, ethnicity, and histology. Conclusion: The WID-qEC is a noninvasive reliable test for triage of women with symptoms suggestive of ECs. Because of the potential for self-collection, it could improve early diagnosis and reduce the reliance for in-person visits.
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    Open Access
    Process Technology and Sustainability Assessment of Wastewater Treatment
    (American Chemical Society, 2023) Tran, Nam Nghiep; Escribà i Gelonch, Marc; Sarafraz, M. M.; Pho, Quoc Hue; Sagadevan, Suresh; Hessel, Volker
    Removal of heavy metals in wastewater treatment is crucial to protect the environment, wildlife, and human health. Various techniques have been developed focusing on removal of heavy metal ions, pharmaceuticals, and other contaminants from different wastewater sources. The main methods include adsorption, filtration, ion exchange, electrochemical, reverse osmosis, precipitation, flotation/coagulation/flocculation, and photocatalytic-based treatments. This paper comprehensively assesses the sustainability of those common technologies used for wastewater process treatment. The sustainability profile depends mostly on the exact approach followed for each technology, including its energy consumption, type of radiation (where appropriate), auxiliary materials used (e.g., catalysts, adsorbents), and further specific experimental process settings. Thus, while sustainability inevitably provides a multifaceted answer, the review finally aims for sustainability benchmarking of all technologies, by compressing the manifold outcomes toward a compact information set, such as a table and radar plot.
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    Open Access
    ORF, an operational framework to measure resilience in social–ecological systems: the forest case study
    (Springer, 2024) Lloret, Francisco; Hurtado, Pilar; Espelta, Josep Maria; Jaime, Luciana; Nikinmaa, Laura; Lindner, Marcus; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi
    Resilience is commonly addressed when dealing with the sustainable planning and management of social–ecological systems, but we lack a unified framework for its quantitative assessment and application. We present an operational resilience framework (ORF) based on recognizing and relating several elements: system variables (e.g., ecosystem services), disturbances and stressors acting at given spatiotemporal scales, a reference state, and metrics comparing the observed system variables to the reference state. These elements fit into a rationale aimed at identifying resilience predictors suitable to be managed and co-drivers which describe non-manageable context, reflecting the mechanisms involved in resilience. By a systematic search of the presence of the ORF concepts in 453 empirical studies assessing resilience, we corroborate that ORF can be applied to studies on forest social–ecological systems. This literature survey shows that ORF elements are commonly recognized, although the logical narrative relating them is not always explicit, particularly in socioeconomic-focused studies. We advocate that the proposed ORF allows to standardize the terminology and to frame and measure resilience, allowing sounder comparisons and better-supported recommendations for the improvement of resilience in social–ecological systems, particularly in forest systems.
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    Open Access
    Deadwood and Tree-related Microhabitat's abundance and diversity are determined by the interplay of drought-induced die-off and local climate
    (Elsevier, 2024) Chowdhury, Faqrul Islam; Lloret, Francisco; Jaime, Luciana; Margalef-Marrase, Jordi; Espelta, Josep Maria
    Global climate change is increasing the frequency and severity of drought events that cause tree mortality worldwide, particularly in temperate and Mediterranean regions. Researchers have extensively studied the impact of such drought events on forest growth and tree mortality. However, knowledge on the aftermath of such mortality on habitat provision for biodiversity (i.e., abundance, richness, and diversity of deadwood in different decaying stages and tree-related microhabitats) is limited. In this study, we aimed to quantify the impact of drought die-off events on these biodiversity habitat proxies by sampling twenty sites comprised of paired plots (i.e., drought die-off vs control) in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) dominated forests in Catalonia (NE Spain), also considering the influence of forest structure and local climate. We used deadwood and Tree-related Microhabitats (TreM) as proxies for potential biodiversity, basal area as a descriptor of forest structure, and precipitation and temperature to characterize local climate. We found that die-off plots exhibited higher abundance (83%), richness (23%), and diversity (20%) of deadwood than control ones. We also observed that standing (snags) and downed (logs) deadwood compartment showed high abundance (45% and 56%, respectively), richness (26% and 25%, respectively) and diversity (18% for both snags and logs) of TreM. Yet, we found that the presence of deadwood in different decaying stages was also shaped by local climate factors: i.e., wetter sites contained higher proportion of recent deadwood and lower proportion of decaying deadwood, while colder sites contain higher deadwood abundance. Differences in the timing of tree death together with local climate resulted in higher richness of deadwood types in wetter sites, which can likely support higher biodiversity through the presence of more abundant TreM. However, these benefits may be temporary, due to faster deadwood decomposition in wetter environments. Conversely, the observed more long-lasting presence of deadwood in colder and drier sites, may promote structural complexity to persist, although these more extreme climatic conditions may also hinder this benefit if they affect the species relaying on this resource. Ultimately, our study pinpoints that at least during a certain period following a drought-induced die-off event, forest structure becomes more heterogeneous and complex, potentially supporting higher biodiversity, with local climate further shaping the duration of these beneficial effects. These results may help forest managers in guiding their decision regarding the management of deadwood following die-off episodes, with the aim of promoting heterogeneous forest structures and enhancing biodiversity conservation.