Articles publicats (Ciència i Enginyeria Forestal i Agrícola)

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    Open Access
    Current and future glyphosate use in European agriculture
    (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2024) Neve, Paul; Matzrafi, Maor; Ulber, Lena; Baraibar Padró, Bàrbara; Beffa, Roland; Belvaux, Xavier; Torra Farré, Joel; Mennan, Huesrev; Ringselle, Bjoern; Salonen, Jukka; Soukup, Josef; Andert, Sabine; Duecker, Rebecka; Gonzalez, Emilio; Hamouzova, Katerina; Karpinski, Isabella; Travlos, Ilias S.; Vidotto, Francesc; Kudsk, Per
    There has been a longstanding and contentious debate about the future of glyphosate use in the European Union (EU). In November 2023, the European Commission approved the renewal of the use registration for glyphosate for a further 10 years. Nevertheless, the EU Farm to Fork strategy calls for a 50% reduction in pesticide use by 2030. In November 2022, the European Weed Research Society organised a 2 day workshop to identify critical glyphosate uses in current EU cropping systems and to review the availability of glyphosate alternatives. Workshop participants identified four current, critical uses in EU cropping systems; control and management of perennial weeds, weed control in conservation agriculture, vegetation management in tree and vine crops and herbicide resistance management. There are few herbicide alternatives that provide effective, economic, broad-spectrum control of weeds, particularly perennial weeds. Mechanical weed control, and in particular, soil cultivation is the most obvious glyphosate alternative. However, this is not possible in conservation agriculture systems and, in general, increased soil cultivation has negative impacts for soil health. Emerging technologies for precision weed control can enable more targeted use of glyphosate, greatly reducing use rates. These technologies also facilitate the use and development of alternative targeted physical weed control (e.g. tillage, lasers, electricity), reducing the energy and environmental costs of these approaches. In tree crops, the use of organic and inorganic mulches can reduce the need for glyphosate use. In general, reduced use of glyphosate will require an even greater focus on integrated weed management to reduce weed establishment in agroecosystems, increase weed management diversity and limit the use of alternative resistance-prone herbicides.
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    Open Access
    Phenology, population trends and natural enemy complex of Illinoia liriodendri in Spain
    (Springer Science and Business Media B.V., 2024) Meseguer, Roberto; Madeira, Filipe; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G.; Pons i Domènech, Xavier
    Illinoia liriodendri (Monell) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is an Eastern North American native aphid species that infests ornamental tulip trees, Liriodendron tulipifera L. (Magnoliales: Magnoliaceae), in many localities of Spain and southern Europe. This is a comprehensive three-year study on the biology and ecology of the aphid, where its life cycle, phenology, population dynamic trends, comfort damages, natural enemy complex and its potential to control aphid populations have been investigated for the first time in Europe. The monoecic-holocyclic annual cycle of I. liriodendri has been demonstrated. The highest infestation levels were recorded in May and June, but infestation severity varied among localities. No clear trend regarding the effect of planting site (pit vs. ground) on aphid abundance was observed. A strong positive relationship between the aphid infestation severity and the honeydew dripping was recorded. There was a wide complex of natural enemies associated with the aphid. Coccinellidae were the most abundant predators (< 95%) and showed a positive numerical response to the aphid infestation. Several parasitoid species (mainly Hymenoptera: Aphidiinae and Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) were found parasitizing I. liriodendri in Spain. The role of natural enemies as agents for controlling the aphid populations is discussed.
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    Open Access
    Optimizing water and nitrogen productivity of wheat and triticale across diverse production environments to improve the sustainability of baked products
    (Frontiers Media, 2022-09-02) Tamagno, Santiago; Pittelkow, Cameron M; Fohner, George; Nelsen, Taylor S.; Hegarty, Joshua M.; Carter, Claudia E.; Vang, Teng; Lundy, Mark E.
    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major global commodity and the primary source for baked products in agri-food supply chains. Consumers are increasingly demanding more nutritious food products with less environmental degradation, particularly related to water and fertilizer nitrogen (N) inputs. While triticale (× Triticosecale) is often referenced as having superior abiotic stress tolerance compared to wheat, few studies have compared crop productivity and resource use efficiencies under a range of N-and water-limited conditions. Because previous work has shown that blending wheat with triticale in a 40:60 ratio can yield acceptable and more nutritious baked products, we tested the hypothesis that increasing the use of triticale grain in the baking supply chain would reduce the environmental footprint for water and N fertilizer use. Using a dataset comprised of 37 site-years encompassing normal and stress-induced environments in California, we assessed yield, yield stability, and the efficiency of water and fertilizer N use for 67 and 17 commercial varieties of wheat and triticale, respectively. By identifying environments that favor one crop type over the other, we then quantified the sustainability implications of producing a mixed triticale-wheat flour at the regional scale. Results indicate that triticale outyielded wheat by 11% (p < 0.05) and 19% (p < 0.05) under average and N-limited conditions, respectively. However, wheat was 3% (p < 0.05) more productive in water-limited environments. Overall, triticale had greater yield stability and produced more grain per unit of water and N fertilizer inputs, especially in high-yielding environments. We estimate these differences could translate to regional N fertilizer savings (up to 555 Mg N or 166 CO2-eq kg ha−1) in a 40:60 blending scenario when wheat is sourced from water-limited and low-yielding fields and triticale from N-limited and high-yielding areas. Results suggest that optimizing the agronomic and environmental benefits of triticale would increase the overall resource use efficiency and sustainability of the agri-food system, although such a transition would require fundamental changes to the current system spanning producers, processors, and consumers.
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    Open Access
    Interplay between Nitrogen Fertilizer and Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Soybean: Implications on Seed Yield and Biomass Allocation
    (Nature Research, 2018-12-01) Tamagno, Santiago; Sadras, Víctor O; Haegele, Jason W.; Armstrong, Paul R.; Ciampitti, Ignacio A.
    Legumes rely on soil mineral nitrogen (N) and biological N fixation (BNF). The interplay between these two sources is biologically interesting and agronomically relevant as the crop can accommodate the cost of BNF by five non-mutually exclusive mechanisms, whereby BNF: reduces shoot growth and seed yield, or maintains shoot growth and seed yield by enhanced photosynthesis, or reduced root:shoot ratio, or maintains shoot growth but reduces seed yield by reducing the fraction of shoot biomass allocated to seed (harvest index), or reducing concentration of oil and protein in seed. We explore the impact of N application on the seasonal dynamics of BNF, and its consequences for seed yield with emphasis on growth and shoot allocation mechanisms. Trials were established in 23 locations across the US Midwest under four N conditions. Fertilizer reduced the peak of BNF up to 16% in applications at the full flowering stage. Seed yield declined 13 kg ha−1 per % increase in RAUR6. Harvest index accounted for the decline in seed yield with increasing BNF. This indicates the cost of BNF was met by a relative change in dry matter allocation against the energetically rich seed, and in favor of energetically cheaper vegetative tissue.
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    Open Access
    Historical trend on seed amino acid concentration does not follow protein changes in soybeans
    (Nature Research, 2020-12-01) de Borja Reis, A. F.; Tamagno, Santiago; Moro Rosso, Luiz H.; Ortez, Osler A.; Naeve, Seth; Ciampitti, Ignacio A.
    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is the most important oilseed crop for animal industry due to its high protein concentration and high relative abundance of essential and non-essential amino acids (AAs). However, the selection for high-yielding genotypes has reduced seed protein concentration over time, and little is known about its impact on AAs. The aim of this research was to determine the genetic shifts of seed composition for 18 AAs in 13 soybean genotypes released between 1980 and 2014. Additionally, we tested the effect of nitrogen (N) fertilization on protein and AAs trends. Soybean genotypes were grown in field conditions during two seasons under a control (0 N) and a N-fertilized treatment receiving 670 kg N ha−1. Seed yield increased 50% and protein decreased 1.2% comparing the oldest and newest genotypes. The application of N fertilizer did not significantly affect protein and AAs concentrations. Leucine, proline, cysteine, and tryptophan concentrations were not influenced by genotype. The other AAs concentrations showed linear rates of decrease over time ranging from − 0.021 to − 0.001 g kg−1 year−1. The shifts of 11 AAs (some essentials such as lysine, tryptophan, and threonine) displayed a relative-to-protein increasing concentration. These results provide a quantitative assessment of the trade-off between yield improvement and seed AAs concentrations and will enable future genetic yield gain without overlooking seed nutritional value.