Articles publicats (Enginyeria Industrial i de l’Edificació)

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    Open Access
    Application of deep learning techniques to minimize the cost of operation of a hybrid solar-biomass system in a multi-family building
    (Elsevier, 2023) Zsembinszki, Gabriel; Fernàndez Camon, César; Borri, Emiliano; Cabeza, Luisa F.
    Concerns related to climate change put renewable energy at the centre of most of the policies aimed at achieving a deep decarbonisation of the building sector. The combined use of two or more renewable energy sources in the same energy system can lead to an increase in the total share of renewable energy and in the flexibility of the system. In this direction, the SolBio-Rev project aims to develop an innovative system that uses solar thermal collectors and a biomass boiler to meet energy demand in buildings in different climatic regions. An advanced control that used deep reinforcement learning techniques was considered in this paper to find an optimal control strategy for a specific SolBio-Rev system installed in a standard multi-family residential building located in Madrid. The advanced control was developed to minimize the total cost of operation of the system. The results indicated that the advanced control strategy achieved a cost reduction of 35% in winter, compared to a standard rule-based control strategy. However, the improved control was not able to produce a significant cost reduction in summer.
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    Standardised methods for the determination of key performance indicators for thermal energy storage heat exchangers
    (Elsevier, 2023) Beyne, Wim; T'Jollyn, Ilya; Lecompte, Steven; Cabeza, Luisa F.; De Paepe, Michel
    Latent thermal energy storage (LTES) heat exchangers can provide energy storage in a broad range of energy systems. Implementing LTES heat exchangers requires an assessment of their performance in a given system. The performance of a LTES heat exchanger is described by its performance indicators which are classified as technical, economical, and life-cycle indicators. The current paper focusses on the technical performance indicator and specifically on predictive methods which aid the assessment of the performance of a LTES heat exchanger in a system. To structure the analysis, a thermodynamic framework is provided which allows to clearly define LTES heat exchangers and classify the technical performance indicators. In a second step, the literature is reviewed for reported technical performance indicators with a specific focus on predictive methods for these indicators. The averaged effectiveness-number of transfer units (ε-NTU) and phase change time method are identified as important predictive models, analyzed, and compared based on their theoretical derivation. The relation between the averaged effectiveness and phase change time is investigated both theoretically and based on data available in literature which results in recommendations for standardizing the characterization of LTES heat exchangers. By standardizing characterization of LTES heat exchangers, researcher can assess their performance in different energy systems without additional experiments or CFD calculations.
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    Open Access
    Detection of unfavourable urban areas with higher temperatures and lack of green spaces using satellite imagery in sixteen Spanish cities
    (Elsevier, 2022) Rodríguez Gomez, Francisco; Fernández Cañero, Rafael; Pérez Luque, Gabriel; Campo Ávila, José del; López Rodríguez , Domingo; Pérez Urrestarazu, Luis
    This paper seeks to identify the most unfavourable areas of a city in terms of high temperatures and the absence of green infrastructure. An automatic methodology based on remote sensing and data analysis has been developed and applied in sixteen Spanish cities with different characteristics. Landsat-8 satellite images were selected for each city from the July-August period of 2019 and 2020 to calculate the spatial variation of land surface temperature (LST). The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to determine the abundance of vegetation across the city. Based on the NDVI and LST maps created, a k-means unsupervised classification clustering was performed to automatically identify the different clusters according to how favourable these areas were in terms of temperature and presence of vegetation. A Disadvantaged Area Index (DAI), combining both variables, was developed to produce a map showing the most unfavourable areas for each city. Overall, the percentage of the area susceptible to improvement with more vegetation in the cities studied ranged from 13 % in Huesca to 64–65 % in Bilbao and Valencia. The influence of several factors, such as the presence of water bodies or large buildings, is discussed. Detecting unfavourable areas is a very interesting tool for defining future planning strategy for green spaces.
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    Open Access
    Energy Assessment of a Tannery to Improve Its Sustainability
    (MDPI, 2023) Morera Prat, Josep M.; Borri, Emiliano; Zsembinszki, Gabriel; Vérez, David; Gasa, Gemma; Bartolí, Esther; Cabeza, Luisa F.
    The tanning industry is one of the highly polluting sectors, and it is only in the last few years that studies on the energy improvement of tanneries started to proliferate in the literature. Even though the energy cost of a tannery is only a small fraction of the total cost, many tanners became aware of the importance of improving energy efficiency and reducing the environmental footprint to keep the business afloat and be more competitive in the market. This paper presents a study on increasing the sustainability of a tannery located in the region of Catalonia, Spain. Several measures to increase its energy efficiency and reduce its primary energy consumption were proposed and analysed including, among others, the implementation of solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic panels. A cost analysis of the most promising solutions was carried out and discussed. The results show that the tannery should invest between EUR 2 to 2.5 M to obtain the highest energy savings, with an estimated payback period between 5 and 7 years. However, acceptable energy savings can be obtained with a lower investment cost of between EUR 1 to 1.5 M, with a shorter payback period of between 2 and 4 years.
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    Open Access
    Numerical and Experimental Analysis of a Low-GWP Heat Pump Coupled to Electrical and Thermal Energy Storage to Increase the Share of Renewables across Europe
    (MDPI, 2023) Rehman, Omais Abdur; Palomba, Valeria; Frazzica, Andrea; Charalampidis, Antonios; Karellas, Sotirios; Cabeza, Luisa F.
    In order to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels in the residential sector, low-carbon-footprint technologies such as heat pumps should be used. To fully exploit solar-assisted heat pumps, an effective control strategy is required. This study employs a low-global-warming-potential (GWP) refrigerant for a water-to-water reversible heat pump, which is assisted by a thermal energy storage tank, photovoltaic (PV) installation, and battery storage system using a dedicated control strategy. The heat pump’s operation is validated against the experimental data. Simulations are carried out for three different climates to analyze the performance of reversible heat pumps across Europe. The reversible heat pump fully meets the summer cooling demand in all three climates, while the heating demand is covered with the help of a backup source. An economic analysis is carried out for three different PV sizes and the results are compared with the reference energy systems. The inclusion of a battery storage system results in high payback times but increases overall flexibility and self-sufficiency.