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- ItemOpen AccessA functional virgin olive oil enriched with olive oil and thyme phenolic compounds improves the expression of cholesterol efflux-related genes: A randomized, crossover, controlled trial(MDPI, 2019) Farràs, Marta; Arranz, Sara; Carrión Bolorino, Silvia; Subirana Cachinero, Isaac; Muñoz-Aguayo, Daniel; Blanchart, Gemma; Kool, Marjon; Solà, Rosa; Motilva Casado, Mª José; Escolà Gil, Joan Carles; Rubió Piqué, Laura; Fernández Castillejo, Sara; Pedret, Anna; Estruch Riba, Ramon; Covas Planells, María Isabel; Fitó, Montserrat; Hernáez Camba, Álvaro; Castañer, OlgaThe consumption of antioxidant-rich foods such as virgin olive oil (VOO) promotes high-density lipoprotein (HDL) anti-atherogenic capacities. Intake of functional VOOs (enriched with olive/thyme phenolic compounds (PCs)) also improves HDL functions, but the gene expression changes behind these benefits are not fully understood. Our aim was to determine whether these functional VOOs could enhance the expression of cholesterol efflux-related genes. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover, controlled trial, 22 hypercholesterolemic subjects ingested for three weeks 25 mL/day of: (1) a functional VOO enriched with olive oil PCs (500 mg/kg); (2) a functional VOO enriched with olive oil (250 mg/kg) and thyme PCs (250 mg/kg; FVOOT), and; (3) a natural VOO (olive oil PCs: 80 mg/kg, control intervention). We assessed whether these interventions improved the expression of cholesterol efflux-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reactions. The FVOOT intervention upregulated the expression of CYP27A1 (p = 0.041 and p = 0.053, versus baseline and the control intervention, respectively), CAV1 (p = 0.070, versus the control intervention), and LXRβ, RXRα, and PPARβ/δ (p = 0.005, p = 0.005, and p = 0.038, respectively, relative to the baseline). The consumption of a functional VOO enriched with olive oil and thyme PCs enhanced the expression of key cholesterol efflux regulators, such as CYP27A1 and nuclear receptor-related genes.
- ItemOpen AccessA new methodology for the analysis of total deoxynivalenol, dissolved and adsorbed on cell walls, in microbiological culture assays(Elsevier, 2022-06-23) Borràs-Vallverdú, Bernat; Ramos Girona, Antonio J.; Marín Sillué, Sònia; Sanchís Almenar, Vicente; Rodríguez Bencomo, Juan JoséDeoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin mainly produced by Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum and is commonly found in cereals such as wheat, barley, oats, and their derivatives. Scientists have been working on different strategies for DON detoxification, with biological detoxification being an approach with growing interest. When evaluating the use of microorganisms for mycotoxin detoxification, different phenomena can occur, namely, biotransformation (by microorganism metabolism and by interaction with extracellular cell proteins) and adsorption on cell walls, both of which can be present. In this study, a fast, simple, reliable, and inexpensive method for total DON quantification (dissolved and adsorbed) in bacterial culture assays is presented. This method can be used in screenings designed for searching DON-biodegrading microorganisms without requiring the analysis of the metabolites produced. This method has a good recovery (80.2%), reproducibility (3.2%) and low limit of quantification (0.60 μg/ml) that allows quantification under a wide range of DON concentrations in microbiological culture assays.
- ItemOpen AccessA review of the mycotoxin adsorbing agents, with an emphasis on their multi-binding capacity, for animal feed decontamination(Elsevier, 2018-02-21) Vila Donat, P.; Marín Sillué, Sònia; Sanchís Almenar, Vicente; Ramos Girona, Antonio J.Contamination of animal feed with mycotoxins still occurs very often, despite great efforts in preventing it. Animal feeds are contaminated, at low levels, with several mycotoxins, particularly with those produced by Aspergillus and Fusarium genera (Aflatoxin B1, Ochratoxin A, Zearalenone, Deoxynivalenol and Fumonisina B1). In animal feed, to date, only Aflatoxin B1 is limited through EU regulation. Consequently, mycotoxins cause serious disorders and diseases in farm animals. In 2009, the European Union (386/2009/EC) approved the use of mycotoxin-detoxifying agents, as feed additives, to prevent mycotoxicoses in farm animals. The present review gives an overview of the problem of multi-mycotoxin contamination of feed, and aims to classify mycotoxin adsorbing agents (minerals, organic, and synthetic) for feed decontamination, focusing on adsorbents with the ability to bind to multiple mycotoxins, which should have a more effective application in farms but they are still little studied in scientific literature.
- ItemOpen AccessA toxicokinetic study reflecting the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of deoxynivalenol in broiler chickens(Taylor & Francis Open Access, 2021-01) Riahi, Insaf; Ramos Girona, Antonio J.; Pérez-Vendrell, Anna Maria; Marquis, VirginieTo identify the specific biomarkers of exposure of DON in chickens, a toxicokinetic study was performed via oral or intravenous application of deoxynivalenol (DON). Doses of 0.75 and 2.25 mg DON/kg of body weight (BW) were administrated intravenously or orally to the chickens. Next, blood samples were collected at several time points and plasma was obtained. Liquid chromatography–tandem massspectrometry (LC–MS/MS) was used to quantify plasma levels of DON and its metabolite DON-3- sulphate (DON-3S). A non-compartmental analysis was performed to study the main toxicokinetic parameters after intravenous or oral application of the toxin. Regarding oral administration, DON plasma level was below the limit of detection (LOD) of the method (1.5 ng/mL) and DON-3S could not be identified. After intravenous administration of DON at 0.75 and 2.25 mg DON/kg BW, the elimination half-life was 57.1 and 47.7 min, respectively, indicating the rapid elimination of DON. The metabolite DON-3S was found in plasma of broilers exposed to DON intravenously. The absence of DON in chicken plasma after oral bolus application suggests the low absorption of this mycotoxin. The presence of DON-3S in plasma indicates that this metabolite could be the appropriate biomarker of DON exposure in chickens.
- ItemOpen AccessAbiotic factors and their interactions influence on the co-production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid by Aspergillus flavus isolated from corn(Elsevier, 2014) Astoreca, A.; Vaamonde, G.; Dalcero, A.; Marín Sillué, Sònia; Ramos Girona, Antonio J.The objectives of this study were i) to determine the effects of the interactions of water activity, temperature and incubation time on the co-production of AFB1 and CPA by isolates of Aspergillus flavus with different profile of mycotoxin production and ii) to identify the aW and temperature limiting conditions for the production of both mycotoxins. Fungi used in this study were selected because they belonged to different chemotypes: chemotype I (AFB1/CPA), III (AFB1/CPA ) and IV (AFB1 /CPA), respectively. Two culture media were used; Czapek yeast agar (CYA) and corn extract agar (CEM), at different incubated temperatures (10-40º C) and aW levels (0.80-0.98). AFB1 and CPA production were analyzed after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of incubation. Significant differences were observed with respect to mycotoxin production depending on the media evaluated. The AFB1 production occurred more favorably on CYA while the highest CPA concentrations were recorded on CEM. Within the range of aW evaluated in this study, 0.83 was the limiting level for both toxins production. The optimum conditions for AFB1 production occurred at 0.96 aw and 30 C after 21 days of incubation, regardless of the media and isolate. Although different amounts of toxins were produced in each medium, the limiting and optimum conditions for their production were similar in both. No differences in the response of the three isolates to the abiotic factors discussed were observed despite belonging to different chemotypes. The determination of the thresholds of mycotoxins co-production, especially in the case of data obtained with the corn extract medium can be useful to avoid the conditions conducive to co-occurrence of these mycotoxins in corn.
- ItemRestrictedAcidification of apple and orange hosts by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum.(Elsevier, 2014) Vilanova, Laura; Viñas Almenar, Inmaculada; Torres Sanchis, Rosario; Usall i Rodié, Josep; Burón Moles, Gemma; Teixidó i Espasa, NeusNew information about virulence mechanisms of Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum could be an important avenue to control fungal diseases. In this study, the ability of P. digitatum and P. expansum to enhance their virulence by locally modulating the pH of oranges and appleswas evaluated. For each host, pH changeswith a compatible pathogen and a non-host pathogen were recorded, and the levels of different organic acids were evaluated to establish possible relationships with host pH modifications. Moreover, fruits were harvested at three maturity stages to determine whether fruit maturity could affect the pathogens' virulence. The pH of oranges and apples decreasedwhen the compatible pathogens (P. digitatumand P. expansum, respectively) decayed the fruit. The main organic acid detected in P. digitatum-decayed oranges was galacturonic acid produced as a consequence of host maceration in the rot development process. However, the obtained results showed that this acid was not responsible for the pH decrease in decayed orange tissue. The mixture of malic and citric acids could at least contribute to the acidification of P. digitatum-decayed oranges. The pH decrease in P. expansum decayed apples is related to the accumulation of gluconic and fumaric acids. The pH of oranges and apples was not affected when the non-host pathogen was not able to macerate the tissues. However, different organic acid contents were detected in comparison to healthy tissues. The main organic acids detected in P. expansum
oranges were oxalic and gluconic and in P. digitatum
apples were citric, gluconic and galacturonic. Further research is needed to identify the pathogenicity factors of both fungi because the contribution of organic acids has profound implications.
- ItemOpen AccessActividad antioxidante, composición nutrimental y funcional de flores comestibles de Dalia(Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2014) Lara-Cortés, Estrella; Martín Belloso, Olga; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Barrera-Necha, Laura Leticia; Sánchez-López, Jesús Arnoldo; Bautista-Baños, SilviaIn Mexico, Dahlia flowers are commonly consumed in different type of dishes; however, there are no reports on characteristics as a functional food. Proximate composition, minerals, vitamin C, phenolic compounds, total anthocyanins, carotenoids and antioxidant activity of dahlia flowers were studied. In general, the highest values for the content of phenolic compounds, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity were found in the purple dahlia (127.5 mg AG.g -1, 257.5 mg pelargonidin.100 g -1 and 24% of inhibition respectively). The type and concentration of phenolic compounds varied according to the color of the flower. The highest phenolic compound value was for hesperidin (398.9 mg.g -1), while the most detected phenolic compounds in the flowers were gallic and caffeic acids. Based on these results, we can recommend the consumption of dahlia flowers as functional food because it provides phenolic compounds (specially the dark-colored dahlia flowers, since they had the highest phenolic composition and antioxidant activity)
- ItemRestrictedAdhesion and invasion of Listeria monocytogenes and interaction with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG after habituation on fresh-cut pear(Elsevier Ltd, 2017-07) Iglesias Valenzuela, María Belén; Viñas Almenar, Inmaculada; Colás Medà, Pilar; Collazo Cordero, Cyrelys; Serrano Casasola, José Carlos Enrique; Abadias i Sero, Mª IsabelSeveral foods are carriers of probiotic bacteria. Most species of the genus Lactobacillus are probiotics and common inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract. It is known that they contribute to the health of gastrointestinal tract, but at the same time certain strains can be antagonistic against foodborne pathogens. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on the ability of a strain of Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract, and its adhesion and invasion into Caco-2 cells when it was previously habituated on fresh-cut pear stored at 10 °C for 7 days. At the end of the storage, L. rhamnosus GG caused a reduction in the survival of L. monocytogenes in the gastrointestinal tract, and adhesion and invasion into Caco-2 cells. Moreover, it showed an antagonistic activity against L. monocytogenes.
- ItemOpen AccessAflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in sorghum grains marketed in Tunisia(Taylor & Francis, 2018-02) Lahouar, Amani; Jedidi, Ines; Sanchís Almenar, Vicente; Saïd, SalemA total of 64 samples of sorghum (37 Tunisian sorghum samples and 27 Egyptian sorghum samples) were collected during 2011 – 2012 from markets in Tunisia. Samples were analysed for contamination with aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A and zearalenone by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Fluorescence Detection (HPLC-FLD). Aflatoxin B1 was found in 38 samples in the range 0.03 – 31.7 μg kg − 1 . Ochratoxin A was detected in 24 samples with concentrations ranging from 1.04 to 27.8 μg kg − 1 . Zearalenone was detected in 21 samples and the concentration varied between 3.7 and 64.5 μg kg − 1 . ANOVA analysis of the influence of the country of origin on the incidence and concentration of mycotoxins in the samples studied showed no significant difference ( P > 0.05) between the two batches of samples for each of the three mycotoxins studied. The studied mycotoxins contaminate sorghum and may also co-exist because of the diversity of the mycobiota in this cereal.
- ItemRestrictedAflatoxins and ochratoxin A in pistachios sampled in Spain: occurrence and presence of mycotoxigenic fungi(Taylor & Francis, 2010) Fernane, F.; Cano Sancho, German; Sanchís Almenar, Vicente; Marín Sillué, Sònia; Ramos Girona, Antonio J.A survey of the fungal contamination and occurrence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A (OTA) in 50 pistachio nutsamples collected from commercial stores around Catalonia (Spain) was carried out.Aspergillus flavuswas foundin 30% of samples, whereasAspergillussectionNigri,Aspergillus ochraceus, andPenicillium verrucosumwere found in 40%, 2% and 26% of samples, respectively. A total of 204 fungal isolates were obtained; 70.8% ofA. flavusisolates were able to produce aflatoxin B1and B2, whereas OTA production capacity was detectedin 54.4% of theA. sectionNigribiseriate isolates. Aflatoxins were detected in five samples (10% of total),all exceeding the maximum legal limit set for aflatoxin B1(2mgkg1) or for total aflatoxins (4mgkg1), with onesample having a very high level of contamination (1134.5mgkg1). Only one sample of pistachio showed OTAcontamination at 0.67mgkg1. Simultaneous contamination by aflatoxins and OTA was not observed in thesesamples. It was concluded that the frequency of aflatoxins and OTA contamination in pistachio samples availablein the Spanish market is relatively low. Thus, no significant contribution to health risk should be expected fromaflatoxin consumption through pistachios among healthy consumers. However, the existence of single sampleswith an extremely high aflatoxin concentration reinforces the need for effective prevention strategies in pistachioprocessing and commercialization.
- ItemOpen AccessAgricultura sostenible: detección de la podredumbre gris determinada por PCR en viñedos de Querétaro(Consejo de Ciencia y Tecnología del Estado de Querétaro, 2016) Juárez Campusano, Yara Suhan; Pacheco Aguilar, Juan Ramiro; Martínez Peniche, Ramón Álvar; Soto Muñoz, LourdesEl cultivo de la vid ha cobrado importancia en Querétaro, debido a que su producción repercute en la economía del estado; sin embargo, parte de esa producción se pierde debido a enfermedades, como la podredumbre gris, ocasionada por el hongo Botrytis cinerea. Para su pertinente control, es necesario optar por un método de detección, como las técnicas moleculares basadas en la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). El objetivo fue estandarizar la PCR convencional para detectar B. cinerea en vid; para ello, se muestrearon uvas cv. "Merlot" en viñedos del estado: El Rosario (FRo), Bodegas de Cote (BCo) y Azteca (VAz). La PCR convencional se optimizó utilizando dos pares de oligonucleótidos específicos para B. cinerea (C729+/- y BC108/53) y se validó amplificando ADN de diferentes cepas de B. cinerea y otros microorganismos asociados a la vid. Finalmente, la técnica estandarizada se utilizó para determinar la incidencia de B. cinerea en los viñedos. Los iniciadores C729+/- presentaron un amplicón de 750 pb solo con el ADN de B. cinerea. Los viñedos mostraron baja incidencia de B. cinerea (15%); la más alta fue en VAz (p=0.017), seguido de BCo y FRo. Entre estos dos últimos no hubo diferencias significativas; se obtuvo 9.5 y 7.5%, respectivamente. La diferencia obtenida en la incidencia podría atribuirse al manejo cultural del viñedo y al inoculo primario presente en campo, puesto que no se encontró relación con las condiciones climáticas.
- ItemOpen AccessAloe vera gel: An update on its use as a functional edible coating to preserve fruits and vegetables(Elsevier, 2021) Nicolau Lapeña, Iolanda; Colás Medà, Pilar; Alegre Vilas, Isabel; Aguiló-Aguayo, Ingrid; Muranyi, Peter; Viñas Almenar, InmaculadaAloe vera L. is a common succulent plant that has been used for centuries regarding their healing properties and health benefits. Nowadays, scientific investigations on its gel have gained more attention because of its interesting antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Also, the food industry encounters the need to preserve safety and quality of fresh produce; fruits and vegetables are in high demand due to their reported health benefits, and fresh-cut products are a new trend that meets the restless needs of the society. Edible coatings are an effective way to maintain freshness of these products, extend their shelf life, and even act as an alternative to modified atmosphere packaging to be used in conventional packaging. Aloe vera gel is a natural hydrocolloid, composed mainly by polysaccharides, that has been applied in the last years on fruits and vegetables. It can act as a semipermeable barrier for gases and water vapor, decreasing the respiration and ripening processes of the fruit, thus maintaining weight, firmness and valuable compounds. Its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties make it also an interesting material for increasing the shelf-life of fruits and vegetables. This review aims to describe the preparation and preservation of Aloe vera gel as well as the properties and compounds that are effective against oxidation and microbial growth. Moreover, the recent findings of its use – with or without additives – as an edible coating on fruits and vegetables have been widely detailed, showing that Aloe vera gel is a promising preservative method in this industry.
- ItemOpen AccessAn attempt to model the probability of growth and aflatoxin B1 production of Aspergillus flavus under non-isothermal conditions in pistachio nuts(Elsevier, 2015) Aldars García, Laila; Ramos Girona, Antonio J.; Sanchís Almenar, Vicente; Marín Sillué, SòniaHuman exposure to aflatoxins in foods is of great concern. The aim of this work was to use predictive mycology as a strategy to mitigate the aflatoxin burden in pistachio nuts postharvest. The probability of growth and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus, isolated from pistachio nuts, under static and non-isothermal conditions was studied. Four theoretical temperature scenarios, including temperature levels observed in pistachio nuts during shipping and storage, were used. Two types of inoculum were included: a cocktail of 25 A. flavus isolates and a single isolate inoculum. Initial water activity was adjusted to 0.87. Logistic models, with temperature and time as explanatory variables, were fitted to the probability of growth and AFB1 production under a constant temperature. Subsequently, they were used to predict probabilities under non-isothermal scenarios, with levels of concordance from 90 to 100% in most of the cases. Furthermore, the presence of AFB1 in pistachio nuts could be correctly predicted in 70-81 % of the cases from a growth model developed in pistachio nuts, and in 67-81% of the cases from an AFB1 model developed in pistachio agar. The information obtained in the present work could be used by producers and processors to predict the time for AFB1 production by A. flavus on pistachio nuts during transport and storage.
- ItemRestrictedAn attempt to optimize potassium sorbate use to preserve low pH (4.5–5.5) intermediate moisture bakery products by modelling Eurotium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium corylophilum growth(Elsevier, 2005) Guynot, M. Elena; Marín Sillué, Sònia; Sanchís Almenar, Vicente; Ramos Girona, Antonio J.Mould growth was modelled on fermented bakery product analogues (FBPA) of two different pH (4.5 and 5.5), different water activity (aw) levels (0.80–0.90) and potassium sorbate concentrations (0–0.3%) by using seven moulds commonly causing spoilage of bakery products (Eurotium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium corylophilum). For the description of fungal growth (growth rates) as a function of aw, potassium sorbate concentration and pH, 10-terms polynomial models were developed. Modelling enables prediction of spoilage during storage as a function of the factors affecting fungal growth. At pH 4.5 the concentration of potassium sorbate could be reduced to some extent only at low levels of aw, whereas at pH 5.5 fungal growth was observed even by adding 0.3% of potassium sorbate. However, this preservative could be a valuable alternative as antifungal in such bakery product, of slightly acidic pH, if a long shelf life has not to be achieved.
- ItemRestrictedAn Enterobacteriaceae species isolated from apples controls foodborne pathogens on fresh-cut apples and peaches(Elsevier, 2012) Alegre Vilas, Isabel; Viñas Almenar, Inmaculada; Usall i Rodié, Josep; Anguera, Marina; Figge, Marian J.; Abadias i Sero, Mª IsabelCurrently, chlorine is the most widely used decontaminant in the minimally processed (MP) food industry. However, it does not achieve more than a 1–2 log reduction in bacterial populations. Efficient decontamination of MP produce could create a less competitive environment in which pathogens can multiply without restriction. Therefore, our objective was to test the efficacy of the biopreservative bacterial strain CPA-6 isolated from MP apples to control a non-pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria innocua on MP apples and peaches. Apple and peach plugs were co-inoculated with a suspension containing one of the pathogens (105 colony forming units (cfu) plug−1) and CPA-6 (106 cfu plug−1) and incubated at 20 °C or 5 °C. CPA-6 effectively inhibited the growth of, or reduced, in some cases to below the limit of detection, pathogen populations on both fruit incubated for 2 days at 20 °C and of E. coli on both fruit incubated at 5 °C, compared with the pathogen inoculated alone. The minimum effective dose required to inhibit any of the pathogens tested was 106 cfu plug−1 on both fruit and at both temperatures and it did not cause a hypersensitive reaction on tobacco plants. Finally, CPA-6 could not be assigned to any of the recognised species within the family Enterobacteriaceae based on phenotypic and 16S rRNA results. Therefore, this strain may be a suitable microorganism to use as a biopreservative culture to control the growth of food borne pathogens on MP fruit.
- ItemOpen AccessAn innovative water-assisted UV-C disinfection system to improve the safety of strawberries frozen under cryogenic conditions(Elsevier, 2021) Ortiz Solà, Jordi; Viñas Almenar, Inmaculada; Aguiló-Aguayo, Ingrid; Bobo, Gloria; Abadias i Sero, Mª IsabelStrawberries inoculated with Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes (108 CFU/mL, 50 μL) and murine norovirus (MNV-1; 106 TCID50/mL, 50 μL), were washed for 2 min in a water-assisted UV-C light tank (WUVC) combined or not with 40 mg/L of peracetic acid (WUVC+PA), and 200 mg/L of free chlorine solution (NaClO) with the UV-C lamps switched off. Moreover, a ‘conventional’ dry UV-C treatment (DUVC) was also tested. After 2-min exposure, washing sanitization with chemical agents gave the highest reduction for both bacteria (ca. ≥ 3.3 log CFU/g) and MNV-1 (≥1.8 log TCID50/mL). DUVC treatment proved to be the least effective technology (≤0.6 log CFU/g for bacteria and 1.5 log TCID50/mL for MNV-1). Regarding wash water, no presence of L. monocytogenes and S. enterica were reported with WUVC+PA and NaClO sanitization. After disinfection, samples were frozen at − 70 ± 2 ◦C in a cryogenic freezing cabinet with liquid nitrogen (N2). For both pathogens, frozen storage after washing substantially enhanced their inactivation in the first 3 days (1.1–4.9 log UFC/g) compared to the reductions obtained the following sampling points (0.0–0.8 log UFC/g). After 90 days, L. monocytogenes and S. enterica were not detected on the samples treated with water-assisted methodologies (WUVC, WUVC+PA and NaClO treatments), whilst MNV-1 was little affected. Further studies are needed to improve norovirus inactivation on frozen strawberries. Industrial relevance: The present work provides relevant information to the frozen food industry regarding a suitable decontamination alternative to chlorine sanitation. Low-dose immersion-assisted UV-C allows inactivation and inhibition of pathogenic microbiota while generates non-toxic byproducts and allows reusing the process water, contributing to the so-called “smart green growth” attended to provide a more innovative and sustainable future for the food industry.
- ItemRestrictedAn insight into the reactions occurring during the chemical activation of bone char(Elsevier B.V, 2014-09-01) Iriarte-Velasco, Unai; Ayastuy, José L.; Zudaire Villanueva, Lorena; Sierra, IreneThe valorisation of animal wastes by pyrolysis has shown to be of interest, due to the versatility of the main compound of char, hydroxyapatite (HAP), which can be used in catalysis, electrochemistry, and adsorption. The utility of HAP depends to a great extent on its textural properties, which can be developed by chemical activation, through gasification reactions. In the present work thermogravimetric analysis coupled to mass spectrometry was used to gain insight into the reactions occurring during the chemical activation of pork bone char with different agents: H3PO4, H2SO4, NaOH and K2CO3. Moreover, the role of each activation reagent in the enhancement of porosity was determined. The treatment with H2SO4 resulted in a highly microporous material, suitable to be used in gaseous pollutant adsorption. Chemical activation with NaOH and K2CO3, on the contrary, led to a more equilibrated increase of micro- and mesoporosity, resulting in a hierarchical porous material, with an excellent potential for applications as electrode, in gas storage, catalysis and energy storage. Regarding H3PO4, it was extremely aggressive under the operating conditions used, since it removed almost all the porous structure of HAP. These results are useful to optimize the preparation method of HAP, in order to configure a material with the desired textural properties.
- ItemOpen AccessAn overview of mycotoxin biomarker application in exposome-health studies(Elsevier, 2020-12-17) Marín Sillué, Sònia; Ramos Girona, Antonio J.; Sanchís Almenar, Vicente; Cano Sancho, GermanExposure assessment in epidemiological studies remains as a key bias domain, prompting for reliable and accurate methods reflecting the true individual exposure. For that reason, the use of exposure biomarkers has become the gold-standard method for environmental chemicals and food contaminants in epidemiology. In the last few years, a growing list of biomonitoring studies has revealed the widespread exposure of population to mycotoxins, mainly aflatoxins, ochratoxins or trichothecenes, subject to geographical localisation. Despite the advances in mass-spectrometry, mycotoxins remain largely overlooked by mainstream epidemiological research. To date, the scarce epidemiological evidence has elucidated the associations between exposure to aflatoxins and hepatocellular carcinoma, cirrhosis or impairment of infant growth. The novel exposome paradigm offers a unique opportunity to boost the epidemiological research of mycotoxins. Nonetheless, there is an urgent need that mycotoxins catch the attention of mainstream epidemiological researchers, especially those intending to develop chemical agnostic approaches in pathologies and populations where mycotoxins may represent a concern.
- ItemRestrictedAnalysis of changes in protein abundance after wounding in"Golden Delicious" apples.(Elsevier, 2014) Burón Moles, Gemma; Torres Sanchis, Rosario; Amoako-Andoh, F.; Viñas Almenar, Inmaculada; Teixidó i Espasa, Neus; Usall i Rodié, Josep; Keulemans, W.; Davey, MW.The apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) cultivar (cv)"Golden Delicious" is one of the most important apple varieties worldwide, and is widely cultivated for export of fruit to Europe and other countries. However, if damaged, the fruit becomes susceptible to opportunistic infection by postharvest phytopathogens such as Botrytis cinerea (gray mould) and Penicillium expansum (blue mould), which annually lead to large economic losses. Therefore, the study of fruit responses to wounding at the proteome level can contribute to a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying fruit stress responses. In this study we report the first systematic description of the changes in protein abundance following wounding of"Golden Delicious" apples, using 2D-PAGE and MS. At the proteome level, the dominant biological process in wounding response was"response to stress", whereas proteins without abundance changes were found to be mainly involved in"metabolism","response to stress", and"oxidation-reduction processes". We speculate that fruit respond to wound stress by modulating the abundance of appropriate proteins and to react to mechanical damage by synthesizing a broad range of PR proteins. Therefore, increasing the information on apple fruit proteins after wounding will be a useful resource in developing strategies to minimize postharvest losses.
- ItemRestrictedAnalysis of the time-dependent protein changes in wounded apples (Golden delicious).(International Society for Horticultural Science, 2014) Burón Moles, Gemma; Torres Sanchis, Rosario; Amoako-Andoh, F.; Viñas Almenar, Inmaculada; Teixidó i Espasa, Neus; Usall i Rodié, Josep; Keulemans, W.; Davey, MW.Malus × domestica Borkh."Golden Delicious" is one of the most important apple cultivars worldwide. However, if damaged, the fruit becomes susceptible to opportunistic infection by postharvest phytopathogens such as Botrytis cinerea (gray mould) and Penicillium expansum (blue mould) which annually lead to large economic losses worldwide. Therefore, a proteomic study of the fruit response to wounding would contribute to better understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying fruit stress response. In this study, we provide the first systematic description of time-dependent protein changes in wounded"Golden Delicious" apples, using 2D-PAGE and MS for protein identification. Publicly available protein and EST databases were used for protein identification and annotation. Proteins that did not change in abundance after wounding were mainly categorized in the biological process of"metabolism","response to stress", and"oxidation-reduction processes", whereas proteins with changes in abundance after wounding were mainly categorized in"response to stress". We suggest that fruits react to mechanical damage by synthesizing a broad range of PR proteins. Increasing our knowledge of apple fruit proteins in wounded fruit tissues will be useful in developing new strategies to minimize postharvest losses.