Browsing Agrotecnio Center by Author "Abadía Bayona, Javier"
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- ItemOpen AccessIron and Zinc in the Embryo and Endosperm of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Seeds in Contrasting 20-Deoxymugineic Acid/Nicotianamine Scenarios(Frontiers Media, 2018) Díaz-Benito, Pablo; Banakar, Raviraj; Rodríguez-Menéndez, Sara; Capell Capell, Teresa; Pereiro, Rosario; Christou, Paul; Abadía Bayona, Javier; Fernández, Beatriz; Álvarez-Fernández, AnaIron and Zn deficiencies are worldwide nutritional disorders that can be alleviated by increasing the metal concentration of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains via bio-fortification approaches. The overproduction of the metal chelator nicotianamine (NA) is among the most effective ones, but it is still unclear whether this is due to the enrichment in NA itself and/or the concomitant enrichment in the NA derivative 20-deoxymugineic acid (DMA). The endosperm is the most commonly consumed portion of the rice grain and mediates the transfer of nutrients from vegetative tissues to the metal rich embryo. The impact of contrasting levels of DMA and NA on the metal distribution in the embryo and endosperm of rice seeds has been assessed using wild-type rice and six different transgenic lines overexpressing nicotianamine synthase (OsNAS1) and/or barley nicotianamine amino transferase (HvNAATb). These transgenic lines outlined three different DMA/NA scenarios: (i) in a first scenario, an enhanced NA level (via overexpression of OsNAS1) would not be fully depleted because of a limited capacity to use NA for DMA synthesis (lack of -or low- expression of HvNAATb), and results in consistent enrichments in NA, DMA, Fe and Zn in the endosperm and NA, DMA and Fe in the embryo; (ii) in a second scenario, an enhanced NA level (via overexpression of OsNAS1) would be depleted by an enhanced capacity to use NA for DMA synthesis (via expression of HvNAATb), and results in enrichments only for DMA and Fe, both in the endosperm and embryo, and (iii) in a third scenario, the lack of sufficient NA replenishment would limit DMA synthesis, in spite of the enhanced capacity to use NA for this purpose (via expression of HvNAATb), and results in decreases in NA, variable changes in DMA and moderate decreases in Fe in the embryo and endosperm. Also, quantitative LA-ICP-MS metal map images of the embryo structures show that the first and second scenarios altered local distributions of Fe, and to a lesser extent of Zn. The roles of DMA/NA levels in the transport of Fe and Zn within the embryo are thoroughly discussed.
- ItemOpen AccessPhytosiderophores determine thresholds for iron and zinc accumulation in biofortified rice endosperm while inhibiting the accumulation of cadmium(Oxford University Press, 2017) Banakar, Raviraj; Alvarez Fernández, Ána; Díaz-Benito, Pablo; Abadía Bayona, Javier; Capell Capell, Teresa; Christou, PaulNicotianamine (NA) and 2′-deoxymugenic acid (DMA) are metal-chelating ligands that promote the accumulation of metals in rice endosperm, but it is unclear how these phytosiderophores regulate the levels of different metals and limit their accumulation. In this study, transgenic rice plants producing high levels of NA and DMA accumulated up to 4-fold more iron (Fe) and 2-fold more zinc (Zn) in the endosperm compared with wild-type plants. The distribution of Fe and Zn in vegetative tissues suggested that both metals are sequestered as a buffering mechanism to avoid overloading the seeds. The buffering mechanism involves the modulation of genes encoding metal transporters in the roots and aboveground vegetative tissues. As well as accumulating more Fe and Zn, the endosperm of the transgenic plants accumulated less cadmium (Cd), suggesting that higher levels of Fe and Zn competitively inhibit Cd accumulation. Our data show that although there is a strict upper limit for Fe (~22.5 µg g−1 dry weight) and Zn (~84 µg g−1 dry weight) accumulation in the endosperm, the careful selection of strategies to increase endosperm loading with essential minerals can also limit the accumulation of toxic metals such as Cd, thus further increasing the nutritional value of rice.
- ItemOpen AccessThe expression of heterologous Fe (III) phytosiderophore transporter HvYS1 in rice increases Fe uptake, translocation and seed loading and excludes heavy metals by selective Fe transport(Wiley, 2016) Banakar, Raviraj; Alvarez Fernández, Ána; Abadía Bayona, Javier; Capell Capell, Teresa; Christou, PaulMany metal transporters in plants are promiscuous, accommodating multiple divalent cations including some which are toxic to humans. Previous attempts to increase the iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) content of rice endosperm by overexpressing different metal transporters have therefore led unintentionally to the accumulation of copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and cadmium (Cd). Unlike other metal transporters, barley Yellow Stripe 1 (HvYS1) is specific for Fe. We investigated the mechanistic basis of this preference by constitutively expressing HvYS1 in rice under the control of the maize ubiquitin1 promoter and comparing the mobilization and loading of different metals. Plants expressing HvYS1 showed modest increases in Fe uptake, root-to-shoot translocation, seed accumulation and endosperm loading, but without any change in the uptake and root-to-shoot translocation of Zn, Mn or Cu, confirming the selective transport of Fe. The concentrations of Zn and Mn in the endosperm did not differ significantly between the wild-type and HvYS1 lines, but the transgenic endosperm contained significantly lower concentrations of Cu. Furthermore, the transgenic lines showed a significantly reduced Cd uptake, root-to-shoot translocation and accumulation in the seeds. The underlying mechanism of metal uptake and translocation reflects the down-regulation of promiscuous endogenous metal transporters revealing an internal feedback mechanism that limits seed loading with Fe. This promotes the preferential mobilization and loading of Fe, therefore displacing Cu and Cd in the seed.